What is the ideal food balance for an average individual?
Carbohydrates? What exactly are they?
  • Carbohydrates provide fuel and energy to the body. All carbohydrates are primarily molecules of sugar. Carbohydrates are basically chemical compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which together to form molecules.
  • Single sugar molecules or Two sugar molecules that have joined together are Simple carbohydrates, whereas complex carbohydrates, otherwise known as starches, are comprised of many sugar molecules, which are all connected. There are three main types of carbohydrates, which are sugars, starches and fibre, which may all be found in a variety of foods.
  • Carbohydrates provide the body with a source of fuel and energy that is required to carry out daily activities and exercise. Our bodies need a constant supply of energy to function properly and a lack of carbohydrates in the diet may cause tiredness or fatigue, poor mental function and lack of endurance and stamina.
  • As carbohydrates are digested and broken down by the body, they are converted into glucose (blood sugar), which is then used or stored as energy. If the glucose is not needed immediately, it will be stored in a person's liver and muscles as glycogen, which is the storage form of glucose.
  • When the body then needs some extra energy, it will turn to the glycogen reserves and convert them into energy. Any extra energy is stored in the body until it is needed as FAT. Carbohydrates are also important for the correct working of our brain, heart and nervous, digestive and immune systems.
  • Fibre, which is also a form of carbohydrate, is essential for the elimination of waste materials and toxins from the body and helps to keep the intestines disease-free and clean.
Simple carbohydrates?
  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as simple sugars and may occur naturally in a food, such as in fruit or they may be broken down and then reformed in an unnatural and manufactured way to produce a product that is high in sugar and usually high in fat.
  • Simple carbohydrates consist of one or two sugar molecules, which means that due to their simple structure, they may quickly and easily be broken down into glucose and converted into energy very soon after they have been consumed.
  • However, this causes blood sugar levels (glucose) to rise rapidly, giving a boost of energy, which is quickly followed by a sharp drop of blood sugar levels and therefore a drop in energy levels, which may ultimately leave us feeling more tired than in the first place.
  • This is true for simple carbohydrates such as sucrose, otherwise known as sugar. Sucrose is the sugar we use to sweeten our hot beverages and it is also present in cakes, pastries, soft drinks and sweets. It is also found in other processed foods, which we may not be aware of.
  • This type of sugar, the unnatural kind, is what makes us put on weight, not to mention causes tooth decay, mood swings, hunger, lack of concentration, diabetes and hyperactivity, especially in children.
  • As opposed to natural sugars found in fruit (fructose) and milk (lactose), which do not have the same effect as they contain other substances in them that prevent the glucose being released too quickly into the bloodstream, sucrose is broken down too quickly, which is bad for the body. Our body does not require such a large amount of sugar or energy in one go and only a certain amount may be converted into glycogen and stored for later use, which means that the surplus is then converted into fat. This fat is then virtually impossible to convert back into sugar and use as energy.
  • Natural sugars found in fruit release energy slowly, contain low levels of sugar and do not contribute to weight gain. They are also high in fibre and vitamins.
Complex carbohydrates?
  • Complex carbohydrates are also known as starchy carbohydrates and may be found in most grains, cereals, potatoes, brown rice, bread, pasta, legumes and certain fruits and vegetables.
  • They are basically many sugar molecules joined together in a chain. Due to the more complex chemical structure, complex carbohydrates are not broken down or digested as quickly or easily as simple carbohydrates.
  • This is much better for the body, as there are no surges in blood sugar levels and the energy provided from these foods is released at a slow and steady rate, meaning that energy levels should stay more or less the same all day.
  • Complex carbohydrates are often lower in fat than simple carbohydrates and also contain plenty of vitamins and fibre, which are essential nutrients for the body.
Function of fat
Fat is one of the 3 nutrients (along with carbohydrates and protein) that supply calories to the body. Fat provides approximately 9 calories per gram, more than twice the number provided by carbohydrates or protein. Fat is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Fats provide essential fatty acids, which are not made by the body and be obtained through food. The essential fatty acids are linoleic and linolenic acid. They are important for controlling inflammation, blood clotting, and brain development. Fat serves as the storage substance for the body's extra calories. It fills the fat cells (adipose tissue) that help insulate the body. Fats are also an important energy source. When the body has used up the calories from carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 20 minutes of exercise, it begins to depend on the calories from fat. Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A, D, E, and K through the bloodstream.
high body fat & negative effects on hormonal structure
Having high body fat does not necessarily cause a change in the actual body shape, or structure, of your hormones. But it may have negative effects on the levels of hormones circulating in your blood; it may also alter the characteristics of target cells specially designed to receive them.
According to University of New Mexico, excess fat produces hormone-like inflammatory proteins called cytokines; these may play a role in the development of diabetes, obesity and heart problems.
Health Risks of Being Underweight 
Many people are underweight for a variety of reasons: high metabolism, skipping meals, eating on the run, illness, injury, active lifestyles, stress, eating the wrong foods and not having enough nutrition. Some of these reasons raise no concerns, but there are health risks in being underweight. Losing weight due to illness, stress, skipping meals or not having sufficient nutrition is all issues. In these situations people set themselves up for further problems down the line by not maintaining a healthy weight and a balanced diet.
Anorexia: Health risks

Eating disorders create underweight patients who may suffer from a myriad of problems. These conditions are extreme because their disease is about controlling what they ingest and how much they weigh. Anorexics frequently damage heart, liver and kidneys by not eating enough. They may also lose their hair, experience muscle weakness and joint pain; ultimately, some people have even starved themselves to death. Infertility, Anemia, Type 1 Diabetes, Osteoporosis, Immune System Deficiencies, Hair Loss, Loss of concentration, Low energy are other symptoms of being underweight.

Dangers of underweight
  • Prone to infection, compromised immune system
  • Digestive disorders / mal-absorption
  • Numerous maycers
  • Low lean muscle mass / metabolic rate
  • Hair loss
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Irregular hormone regulation
  • Osteoporosis/fracture
  • Anemia
  • Low Self image & Low self esteem
  • Lack of concentration
  • Lack of self motivation
  • Pregnancy complications (or fertility problems)
  • Menstrual irregularities
  Vitamin, Protein deficiency and being underweight may affect the effectiveness of your immune system. Example, if you do not get enough vitamin D your body won’t be able to metabolize calcium. If you do not get enough iron you get anemia. Nutrition and exercise is very important to your immune system and even if you are only have minor deficiencies you may suffer from illnesses that won’t go away and from fatigue
how do over weight / obesity affect your health?
Few of the many increased serious health risks associated with obesity are:  
  1. Heart disease and heart attacks
  2. Strokes and high blood pressure
  3. Colon maycer (now associated with excess fat consumption in the diet)
  4. Degenerative joint disease (arthritis), sometimes crippling and leading to a need for joint replacement
  5. Insulin resistance
  6. Diabetes mellitus (high blood sugars), with a long list of related complications in the circulatory (heart), renal (kidney), neurological (nerves), retinal (visual) systems and with infectious diseases and problems with healing
  7. Depression (obese patients are typically inactive which may lead to increased incidences of chronic clinical depression that could be treated and greatly improved with exercise & Right cellular nutrition)
  8. Low self image
  9. Low Self Esteem
  10. Negative thoughts
  11. Breathing difficulties
  12. Chronic fatigue